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Les Taux de change PKR; Banque d'État du Pakistan; Historique de change de la devise Dollar Américain (USD) contre Roupie Pakistanaise (PKR) mai 29 juin 13 juin 28 juil. 13 juil. 28 août 12 août 27 sept. 11 ,5 ,3 ,0 ,7 ,4 ,2 day exchange rate history for USD to PKR. Forex .

L'Europa chiede all'Italia misure per crescita e taglio del debito vota. Berlusconi annuncia la riforma: Merkel e Sarko ridono Video. Parigi e Berlino in pressing foto: Aspettiamo misure su debito e crescita, Spagna fuori pericolo". Van Rompuy diventa "Mister Euro". Ottimiste le borse asiatiche. Rome examine de nouvelles mesures d'économies, sur fond de rumeurs d'aide de l'Union Européenne et du Fonds monétaire international.

Dans un communiqué ce lundi soir, le président du Conseil italien s'est fâché: Pourtant, le chef du gouvernement a convoqué lundi en urgence un Conseil des ministres, pour prévoir de nouvelles coupes budgétaires. Une décision prise sous pression de ses voisins, France et Allemagne en tête. Le président Sarkozy, appuyé par la chancelière Merkel, avait clairement énoncé, dimanche: Mais tout le monde avait compris. Cette deuxième hypothèse a toujours été balayée par les dirigeants européens, le simple fait de mettre sur pied un outil d'aide puissant devant jouer un effet dissuasif et éviter toute contagion de la crise de la dette.

Pour autant, à moins que les marchés ne précipitent la déconfiture, il n'est toujours pas question que l'Italie se présente à brève échéance au guichet d'aide de l'UE et du FMI. Officiellement, rien n'est dans le tuyau.

Le Fonds de soutien de la zone euro FESF ne dispose d'ailleurs pas encore de l'instrument que les experts de la zone euro lui prêtent déjà mais qui doit être finalisé mercredi entre chefs d'État et de gouvernement. En outre, Rome n'a franchi aucune des trois étapes qui lui seraient imposées pour obtenir ladite assistance: Pour le gouvernement Berlusconi, ce serait une humiliation.

Les fuites de ce lundi soir semblent donc d'abord comme un surcroît de pression politique exercé sur Silvio Berlusconi, afin qu'il arrive mercredi soir à Bruxelles avec un plan d'action crédible. Le leader italien a donc trois jours pour faire ce dont il débat avec ses alliés depuis trois mois. Berlusconi a promis à Bruxelles d'accélérer la réforme des retraites , mais se heurte à son allié de la Ligue du Nord Dans l'immédiat, son Conseil des ministres devait examiner d'autres mesures comme la vente aux enchères d'éléments du patrimoine public: Les autres mesures possibles sont plus incertaines.

La voie est très étroite. La peur de la dette. Crescente preoccupazione per il debito d'Italia. In una dichiarazione del Lunedi sera, il premier italiano era arrabbiato: Una decisione sotto pressione dai suoi vicini, Francia e Germania in testa. Il Presidente Sarkozy, sostenuto dalla cancelliere Merkel, aveva chiaramente affermato Domenica: Ma tutti hanno capito.

Tuttavia, il dubbio si è diffuso il Lunedi con la conferma da diverse fonti, che gli esperti europei "studiano" l'opzione di un salvataggio del Tesoro italiano.

Ufficialmente, nulla nel tubo. Per il governo Berlusconi, sarebbe un'umiliazione. Berlusconi ha promesso a Bruxelles accelerare la riforma delle pensioni, ma deve affrontare il suo alleato della Lega Nord. Per ora, il suo gabinetto vuole prendere in considerazione altre misure, come la vendita all'asta di oggetti di proprietà pubblica: Altre misure possibili sono più incerte. Ancora un altro condono fiscale avrebbe portatoi soldi, ma sarebbe molto controverso, la liberalizzazione di alcuni mercati, la privatizzazione delle aziende municipali, la riduzione dello stile di vita dello stato,la riforma del diritto del lavoro dividono i sindacati e partiti.

La strada è molto stretta. La paura del debito. Les étranges profils fantômes de Facebook. If you want to come produce here, you need to transfer your technology to us. But this week a coalition of more than 50 US business groups told Congress that trying to force China to ditch its currency policy may be counter-productive.

Energy should, instead, be focused on safeguarding US intellectual property in China and doing more to lift the restrictions for foreign companies, they said. All'inizio di questa settimana, Gary Locke, l'ambasciatore americano in Cina, ha detto a un pubblico di Pechino che il governo cinese deve accelerare le sue riforme. Il Premier cinese Wen Jiabao, a sua volta, ha detto questo mese che il paese ha riformato da meritare "status di economia di mercato" in base alle regole dell'Organizzazione mondiale del commercio.

Il signor Geithner ha detto che l'approccio cinese è stato "volete vendere nel nostro paese, vogliamo che tu venga produrre qui. Se vuoi venire produrre qui, è necessario trasferire la vostra tecnologia a noi.

Con gli Stati Uniti e diverse economie europee avvicinandosi alla recessione ancora una volta, i politici, tra cui il presidente della Banca Mondiale Robert Zoellick, hanno avvertito dei pericoli del protezionismo come cavallo di battaglia dei paesi per una quota di una torta in contrazione. L'e nergia dovrebbe invece essere concentrata sulle tutela della proprietà intellettuale degli Stati Uniti in Cina e fare di più per eliminare le restrizioni per le imprese straniere, hanno detto.

Quindi come prima conclussione difficilmente si puo parlare di propieta intelletuale quando si parla di transferenza di tecnologia delle telecomunicazioni. Il Signor Geithner non è stato molto chiaro nel precisare di quale propieta intelletuale si riferisca pero per quanto riguarda alle telecomunicazioni questo sembra essere il caso. Ora bene,le differenti modalita di aplicazione di questo concetto nella materializazzione tecnologica dell'ogetto in questione appartiene al dominio della tecnologia e ci sono tante "combinazioni" di tecnologie della telecomunicazione in un solo SUPPORTER mobile e senza fili come permetta l'immaginazione e le possibilita di fabricazioni di ogni uno: Un essempio per tutte illustrera meglio: Il Signor Geithner non fa splicitamente questa differenziazione pero naturalmenbte la CINA come qualunque altro paese o azienda al mondo puo applicare il mio concetto scientifico e creare le combinazioni tecnologiche che li piaciano e convengano.

Non ho la minima intenzione di spendermi in una opinione politica,e tanto meno a favore di regimi non occidentali pero è buono chiarirlo. Due interventi del premier: Mode Hier à 0h00 Mis à jour à Critique Prêt-à-porter printemps-été Suite des défilés féminins à Milan.

Moda Ieri alle 0hAttualizazzione alle Multipli sfilate femminili a Milano. Quando le marche essorcissano la crisi e ripiombano sui "Golden 80's" L'attualita,Jean Gaultier riprende la collama per La Perla. Testo L'ordinanza — "Cavaliere risponda" — video. Video Sora Cesira L'amicizia tra Silvio e Gianpi Per i giudici "era a conoscenza del fatto che erano prostitute" e va indagato. I soldi a Tarantini si ipotizza per indurre a false dichiarazioni.

Messaggio a don Gelmini di attacco a "politici, giudici e stampa". Sabina Began e la prima notte col Cavaliere: Nuovo appello di Napolitano all'indomani delle critiche a Bossi sulla secessione. Ieri l'affondo sul Carroccio, Calderoli: Économie Aujourd'hui à 9h L'agence de notation Moody's a dégradé de trois crans la note de l'Italie. Déjà attelé à un important plan d'austérité, le gouvernement Berlusconi va devoir redoubler d'efforts.

Deux semaines après Standard and Poor's, l'agence Moody's a sévèrement dégradé mardi soir la notation de l'Italie en raison des risques pesant sur le financement de sa dette colossale, de l'atonie de la croissance et des " incertitudes politiques ". Alors que la plupart des analystes s'attendaient à une dégradation d'un ou de deux crans, Moody's a abaissé la note de l'Italie de trois crans à "A2" contre "Aa2" auparavant et l'a assortie d'une perspective négative, ce qui signifie qu'elle pourrait encore l'abaisser à l'avenir.

Réagissant à cette décision, le gouvernement de Silvio Berlusconi a cherché à minimiser en soulignant qu'elle était " attendue " et qu'il " était en train de travailler avec la plus grande détermination pour atteindre les objectifs de finances publiques ". La décision de Moody's s'explique en premier lieu par " l'accroissement des risques " pesant sur le financement de la dette colossale de plus de 1.

Si pour l'agence, " le risque d'un défaut de paiement de l'Italie reste lointain ", elle souligne néanmoins que la méfiance des investisseurs provoque une augmentation de la " vulnérabilité " de l'Italie dans son accès au marché à des taux soutenables.

Selon Moody's, l'Italie est en outre pénalisée par un assombrissement des ses perspectives de croissance en raison de " lacunes structurelles ", comme la faible productivité et la rigidité du marché du travail, et d'un " affaiblissement des perspectives de croissance au niveau mondial ".

Le gouvernement, qui a revu fortement en baisse il y a deux semaines ses prévisions de croissance, doit adopter d'ici la mi-octobre des mesures pour tenter de la relancer mais le patronat et une grande partie des économistes, craignent qu'elles ne manquent d'ambition. Enfin, pour l'agence de notation, les " incertitudes politiques et économiques " font peser un risque sur la mise en oeuvre des mesures de rigueur afin d'atteindre les objectifs de réduction du déficit fixés par le gouvernement et notamment un retour à l'équilibre budgétaire dès Moody's, qui avait entamé mi-juin son examen de la notation de l'Italie, devait initialement rendre sa décision mi-septembre mais avait décidé de se donner un peu plus de temps.

S and P a été la première agence de notation à déclasser l'Italie depuis le début de la crise de la dette. Désormais, les notes attribuées à l'Italie par les deux agences sont au même niveau.

Malgré l'adoption le 14 septembre d'un plan de rigueur draconien devant permettre au pays de parvenir à l'équilibre budgétaire en et de réduire sa dette, l'Italie ne parvient pas à rassurer les marchés.

Les investisseurs doutent de la crédibilité du gouvernement de Silvio Berlusconi, dont l'affaiblissement et la division ont été mis en lumière par les tergiversations qui ont émaillé la mise au point du dernier plan d'austérité. Pour ne rien arranger, le Cavaliere est empêtré dans un nouveau scandale de prostitution et les appels à sa démission se multiplient dans le pays, au sein de l'opposition et du patronat.

L'Italie mérite mieux que cette notation mais s'il n'y a pas de changement politique , la méfiance risque de nous tirer vers le fond ", a lancé Pierluigi Bersani, chef du Parti Démocrate, la principale formation de l'opposition de gauche. Italia cade L'agenzia di rating Moody ha degradato il rating in Italia a tre tacche. Già iniziato un importante piano di austerità,il governo Berlusconi dovrà raddoppiare gli sforzi.

Mentre la maggior parte degli analisti prevede un peggioramento di una o due tacche,Moody ha declassato l'Italia tre tacche a "A2" contro "Aa2" prima,ed è stata accompagnata da una prospettiva in negativo,il che significa che potrebbe ancora abbassare in futuro. Reagendo a questa decisione,il governo di Silvio Berlusconi ha cercato di minimizzare dicendo che era "previsto" e che "stava lavorando con grande determinazione per raggiungere gli obiettivi di finanza pubblica".

Le "lacune strutturali" La decisione di Moody si ha spiegato principalmente per "la crescita del rischio" imposta sul finanziamento del debito enorme di oltre 1.

Se per l'agenzia,"il rischio di default di pagamento d'Italia è lontana",ha sottolineato che la sfiducia degli investitori provoca un aumento della "vulnerabilità" d'Italia nel suo accesso al mercato a tassi soutenabili.

Secondo Moody,l'Italia è stato anche colpita da un oscuramento delle prospettive di crescita a causa di "carenze strutturali", come la bassa produttività e un mercato del lavoro rigido e l'"indebolimento della prospettive di crescita nel mondo". Il governo,che lo si ha rivisto in forte calo da due settimane fa le sue previsioni di crescita,che sarà adottata entro la metà di ottobre da misure per cercare di ripartire,ma i datori di lavoro e la maggioranza degli economisti temono che mancano di ambizione.

Infine,per l'agenzia di rating,le "incertezze politiche ed economiche" rappresentano un rischio per l'attuazione di misure di austerità che permettano raggiungere gli obiettivi di riduzione fissati dal disavanzo pubblico, tra cui il ritorno al pareggio di bilancio entro il La credibilità di Berlusconi in discussione Moody, che aveva iniziato a metà giugno la revisione del rating d'Italia,era originariamente prevista di rendere la sua decisione a metà settembre,ma aveva deciso di dare un po' più.

S e P è stata la prima agenzia di rating a declassare l'Italia a partire dall'inizio della crisi del debito. Ora i voti per l'Italia dalle due agenzie sono le stesse. Nonostante l'adozione di un piano di austerità draconiano,il 14 settembre,per permettere al paese di raggiungere il pareggio di bilancio entro il e ridurre il suo debito, l'Italia non riesce a rassicurare i mercati. Gli investitori in dubbio sulla credibilità del governo di Silvio Berlusconi,la cui debolezza e divisione sono stati evidenziati dalle tergiversazioni che hanno segnato lo sviluppo dei piani di austerità più recenti.

A peggiorare le cose,il Cavaliere è coinvolto in un altro scandalo di prostituzione e le richieste delle sue dimissioni sono in aumento nel Paese, in opposizione alla sua gestione. Anche Fitch taglia il rating dell'Italia Draghi: Declassata anche la Spagna.

Rischio "Junk" "spazzatura" per il Portogallo. L'allarme del Governatore della Banca d'Italia: Poi faremo il riordino istituzionale con il corollario della legge elettorale che confermi il sistema bipolare, la riforma della giustizia e vareremo nuove regole per le intercettazioni. Nicolas Sarkozy a fait un triomphe vendredi, auprès de dizaines de milliers de Géorgiens rassemblés dans le centre de leur capitale Tbilissi, en dénonçant le non-respect par Moscou des accords qui ava….

In Georgia,Sarkozy apella Mosca ai suoi "ingaggiamenti". Nicolas Sarkozy ha fatto un trionfale venerdi,presso decenne di milliari di Georgiani riuniti nel centro della capitale Tibilisi,denunciando il non rispetto per parte di Mosca degli accordi che aveva……. Asse franco-tedesco, l'ira di Frattini: La replica di Parigi: Bruxelles rinvia il summit al 23 ottobre: Crisi, nella Ue scoppia il caso Frattini attacca Parigi e Berlino, ed è scontro.

Il ministro critica il vertice bilaterale mentre le Borse corrono sul sostegno alle banche. Poi arriva il sostegno Usa. Commento amaro di Monti: Pd-Idv e Terzo Polo: Ma i numeri sono sul filo. Pd, Idv e Udc fuori video , i radicali restano foto con un commento di F. Maroni non siede tra i ministri Prodi: In realta Gardel è una figura mitica con tanti aspetti della sua vita sconosciuti. Quella che a avete letto sopra è soltanto una versione della sua vita,l'ultima,frutto di una revisione storica evidentemente originata in Uruguay e ancora tutta da verificare.

Uomo la cui vita corta e gloriosa ebbe luogo a cavallo fra due secoli, trovo la morte in un incidente aereo in Colombia nel ,quando era nella cima della sua carriera e della sua fama. Molti sono i misteri attorno a lui: Daltronde mai conosciuto fino a questa versione di questi ultimi tempi e non ci sono prove concludente su questa paternita,e padre non se ne conosce nessuno. Per quanto riguarda all'origine Francese della Madre sembra che ci sono delle certezze,e qualcuno afferma che in realta lui stesso vinne al mondo in Francia,identificando anche il luogo..

In ogni modo il dato sul massicio trasferimento di Francesi e molte donne recate in porto per fare la prostituzione in quelli tempi è puntualmente vero. Non tanto dai conservatori dell'Argentina "per bene". À la demande du Conseil national de transition, la compagnie aérienne Libyan Airlines serait autorisée à reprendre ses vols.

Le Pentagone craint que les islamistes et al-Qaida ne profitent du flou actuel pour établir des cellules dans le pays, voire infiltrer le CNT. Les plus optimistes comptent sur un scrutin dans les huit mois. Le Nazioni Unite hanno invitato a sostenere la transizione libica. Un giovane soldato mantiene un edificio a Tripoli il 13 settembre. La risoluzione prevede il progressivo scongelamento dei beni di determinate persone ed entità,soprattutto quelle della compagnia petrolifera nazionale libica e la compagnia petrolifera Zueitina.

I russi vogliono cancellare la no-fly zone, che permette il bombardamento NATO dal mese di marzo. Su richiesta del Consiglio di Transizione Nazionale, la compagnia aerea Libyan Airlines è autorizzata a riprendere il suo volo. Una delle priorità delle Nazioni Unite è aiutare le autorità libiche a organizzare nuove elezioni. I più ottimisti contano con uno scrutinio in otto mesi. Quelques pays africains avaient demandé que la décision soit remise à plus tard.

Alcuni paesi africani avevano chiesto che la decisione sia rinviata. Il governo inizialmente aspettato oggi,gestirà la transizione fino a nuove elezioni e la stesura della nuova costituzione. Egli sarà coadiuvato nel suo lavoro da parte delle Nazioni Unite tra cui il Consiglio di sicurezza ha annunciato la revoca parziale del blocco dei fondi libici e una missione di tre mesi in Libia.

Riconosciuto dalle Nazioni Unite come rappresentante del popolo libico,il CNT ha annunciato il 2 settembre la sua intenzione di gestire il paese fino alla elezione in otto mesi di una assemblea costituente prima delle elezioni generali un anno dopo. Questo annuncio pero deve aspettare il momento,perche i combattenti fedeli al vecchio leader in fuga,da tre giorni pongono una feroce resistenza nei loro bastioni di Sirte e Bani Walid che le forze del nuovo regime stanno cercando di conquistare.

Invece, è arrivata la nota del gruppo Usa. Un quadro fosco, in cui il cancelliere tedesco, Angela Merkel, era stata costretta a uscire allo scoperto in difesa della moneta unica e dello stesso progetto di Unione monetaria europea: Paolo Ligammari 20 settembre Par ailleurs, les multiples frasques du chef du gouvernement Silvio Berlusconi contribuent également à affaiblir la coalition au pouvoir.

Italia declassata , Berlusconi: Il differenziale tra titoli italiani e tedeschi torna vicino a punti. Male i mercati asiatici. Berlusconi ha reagito anche a questa notizia e i giornali fanno pubblica la sua risposta: Colpo al sistena bancario italiano. E proprio sulla mancata crescita oltre che sulle incertezze politiche, fatto che aveva scatenato forti critiche aveva insistito il comunicato sul taglio del debito sovrano. Standard and poors taglia il rating di 7 istituti italiani fra i quali Mediobanca e Intesa.

I rischi finanziari sono aumentati, il tempo sta scadendo. Io non faccio passi indietro. Nessun passo indietro dunque nonostante il pressing dei big del partito e pare anche dei figli, si racconta in ambienti della maggioranza. Ieri il colloquio con Napolitano, oggi con Schifani e con i big del Pd: Borse a picco dopo Fed. Perdite pesanti su tutti i listini europei. Spread Btp-bund intorno ai punti di G.

Una protesta della Snap. BRUXELLES — Un gruppo di associazioni delle vittime dei preti pedofili, la Snap Survivors network of those abused by priests e il Centro per i diritti costituzionali Center for Costitutional Right ha depositato oggi presso la Corte penale internazionale dell'Aja un ricorso in cui accusa il Papa e tre alti esponenti del Vaticano — il segretario di Stato, cardinale Tarcisio Bertone, il suo predecessore, il cardinale Angelo Sodano, e il prefetto della Congregazione della dottrina della fede, cardinale William Levada — di crimini contro l'umanità per la copertura dei reati commessi da prelati contro i minori.

Sul suo sito l'associazione spiega di aver deciso questo "storico passo" per proteggere "tutti i bambini innocenti e gli adulti vulnerabili".

Nella denuncia si chiede alla Corte penale internazionale di "incriminare il Papa" per la sua "diretta e superiore responsabilità per i crimini contro l'umanità degli stupri e altre violenze sessuali commesse nel mondo".

Nei prossimi giorni i responsabili della Snap lanceranno un tour in Europa per illustrare le loro accuse e sostenere la denuncia al Cpi, che si occupa di crimini di guerra e contro l'umanità. I legali delle associazioni hanno presentato all'Aja un dossier di 80 pagine ed hanno spiegato che il ricorso alla Corte internazionale si è reso necessario "poiché le azioni legali condotte a livello nazionale non sono state sufficienti a impedire che gli abusi contro i minori continuassero".

La denuncia, a quanto si è appreso, riguarda in particolare cinque casi di abusi sessuali avvenuti in Congo e negli Stati Uniti e commessi da prelati provenienti dal Belgio, dall'India e dagli Usa. Sarà ora il procuratore generale della Corte, Louis Moreno-Ocampo, a dover decidere se accogliere o meno il ricorso andando incontro al rischio di sollevare un acceso quanto delicato dibattito sul ruolo e le competenze della Cpi.

La speranza dei ricorrenti è che la Corte dell'Aja decida quanto meno di aprire un'indagine preliminare per verificare se il caso rientra sotto la sua giurisdizione. La Corte penale internazionale, organismo indipendente dall'Onu, è diventata operativa il primo luglio de e, in base al trattato costitutivo sottoscritto a Roma, viene chiamata a giudicare i presunti responsabili di crimini contro l'umanità e i genocidi.

L'ultima iniziativa partita della Corte è stato il mandato d'arresto emesso nei confronti di Muammar Gheddafi. Il primo commento all'iniziativa da parte Vaticana è arrivato da Crescenzio Sepe, arcivescovo di Napoli e prefetto emerito di Propaganda Fide. L'accusa è di avere coperto gli abusi sessuali commessi da membri della Chiesa ai danni di minori.

Il ricorso, fanno sapere le organizzazioni che lo hanno presentata, riguarderebbe anche il segretario di Stato, cardinale Tarcisio Bertone, il suo predecessore, il cardinale Angelo Sodano, e il prefetto della Congregazione della dottrina della fede, cardinale William Levada. Redazione online 13 settembre Procuratore di Napoli propone 4 date.

No, richiesta a Camere". Ormai non si tratta di sospetti,ne di azioni isolati ne trascenduti stampa. Ambasciatore Usa a Islamabad accusa "Legami tra governo pachistano e terroristi" Il diplomatico americano parla di rapporti tra le autorità del Paese e il clan Haqqani che, in accordo con i talebani, sarebbe responsabile di un attacco missilistico alla rappresentanza degli Stati Uniti a Kabul. Nella foto, l'ambasciatore americano in Pakistan Cameron Munter.

In un'intervista radiofonica ha denunciato i legami tra i gruppi terrrosti afghani e il Pakistan. Ha detto che gli Stati Uniti hanno le prove dei rapporti tra il governo di Islamabad e il clan Haqqani: Secondo il diplomatico, questo clan sarebbe anche responsabile dell'attacco missilistico a Kabul contro l'ambasciata americana.

L'attacco nella 'zona verde' di Kabul, che prese di mira anche l'ambasciata Usa, è stato sferrato il 13 settembre scorso e ci vollero 20 ore alle forze di sicurezza afghane per porvi fine. Il bilancio è stato di 27 morti, fra cui nove assalitori. La rete Haqaani, che ha le sue basi nel Nord Waziristan, era già stata accusata dopo l'attacco dall'ambasciatore Usa a Kabul, Ryan Crocker. Le parole di Munter, che ha intimato al governo pakistano di "porre fine a questi legami", rischiano di raffreddare ulteriormente i rapporti tra Usa e Pakistan.

Dopo il duro colpo inferto alla credibilità di Islamabad dopo l'eliminazione di Osama bin Laden il 2 maggio scorso ad Abottabad, a 70 km da Islamabad, gli Stati Uniti hanno già ridotto di un terzo gli aiuti militari al Pakistan. Negli ultimi mesi, il capo di stato maggiore interforze americano, ammiraglio Mike Mullen ha più volte chiesto al Pakistan di agire contro il clan Haqqani.

Le Pakistan, maillon faible de la lutte antiterroriste. De mésalliances en liaisons dangereuses, le Pakistan est devenu, en dix ans, le casse-tête de l'Occident dans la lutte contre le terrorisme. Les commotions politico-militaires qui l'agitent depuis toujours ont fini par plonger la nation tout entière dans un état de quasi-catatonie. Seul un gouvernement fort, légitime et responsable, capable d'asseoir son autorité, serait en mesure de faire face au chaos ambiant.

On en est loin. À Islamabad, le pouvoir civil courbe l'échine devant l'establishment militaire. Quant à la collaboration entre services secrets pakistanais et américains, pourtant cruciale, elle semble au point mort. Lorsque les États-Unis ont attaqué, ils n'ont trouvé que les femmes et les enfants de Ben Laden. Un sentiment largement partagé. Une décennie plus tard, le mariage de la carpe et du lapin que fut l'allégeance d'Islamabad à Washington, oblige à un constat affligeant: Aujourd'hui, Islamabad fait valoir non sans amertume que la lutte contre le terrorisme a coûté des milliers de vies au Pakistan, les islamistes pakistanais ayant fini par retourner leur djihad contre l'État, l'armée, la police, la population.

Pour le politologue George Friedman, les dirigeants américains et pakistanais étaient parfaitement conscients, dès , de cette double aliénation. Dans cette optique, souligne Friedman, il est devenu encore plus urgent pour Islamabad de placer ses pions dans la région. En ménageant, notamment, des groupes afghans, talibans ou des seigneurs de guerre tels que le réseau Haqqani, au grand dam de Washington, car tous sont liés à al-Qaida. Dans ce contexte, l'annonce de l'armée pakistanaise, lundi, confirmant l'arrestation, à Quetta, de trois hommes proches de Ben Laden, dont un commandant, est apparue comme un signe de réconciliation entre l'ISI et la CIA.

Nul ne sait combien de temps durera l'embellie. Pakistan,un anello debole nella lotta contro il terrorismo. Una manifestazione anti-americana,il 24 febbraio a Lahore. Di "mis-alliances" in relazioni pericolose,il Pakistan è diventato in dieci anni il puzzle dell'Occidente nella lotta contro il terrorismo. Le commozioni politico-militare che si agitano da sempre hanno finito per precipitare l'intera nazione in uno stato di quasi catatonia.

Solo un governo forte,legittimo e responsabile,in grado di affermare la propria autorità,sarebbe in grado di affrontare il caos. A Islamabad,il potere civile si ha piegato all'establishment militare. Ora dal momento che il raid di U. Navy Seals,il 2 maggio,contro la residenza in cui Osama bin Laden si nascondeva in Abbottabad,una cittadina piccola guarnigione situata a circa 60 chilometri dalla capitale,l'esercito ha perso il suo prestigio agli occhi dei pakistani.

Per quanto riguarda la cooperazione tra pakistani e l'intelligence degli Stati Uniti,per tanto cruciale,sembra in stallo. Ufficiale in pensione,padre di Ahmed è anche lui indignato di fronte "a questo miserabile fallimento". Allo stesso tempo, tutti dicono di essere "quasi certo" che Osama non era nella grande casa, ormai circondata da un cordone di sicurezza, dove i commando americani hanno preso d'assalto. Quando gli Stati Uniti hanno attaccato,non hanno scoperto altro che le donne e i bambini di bin Laden.

Per lui,comunque,"se il Pakistan è in piena crisi è colpa degli americani". Dalla fine di settembre ,la "caduta" dal regime talebano a Kabul Musharraf aveva suscitato l'ira di gruppi islamici in Pakistan.

Furono portati in piazza per chiedere al Presidente Generale "non lasciare Washington utilizzare il territorio pakistano per uccidere i loro fratelli afghani". Già,a Lahore,i leader jihadisti ci avevano detto che da lungo tempo i pakistani nella "borghesia media e alta" sono addestrati per "combattere contro l'America e gli ebrei". Un decennio più tardi, il matrimonio della carpa e il coniglio che è stata la fedeltà di Islamabad a Washington obliga a una conclusione desolante: Oggi, Islamabad sostiene con una certa amarezza che la lotta contro il terrorismo ha migliaia di morti in Pakistan,gli islamisti pakistani hanno finito per ritornare alla loro jihad contro lo Stato,esercito,polizia,la gente.

Gli americani richiedono ulteriori sforzi al loro "alleato" ,che continuano a finanziare,nonostante le minacce,nella lotta comune contro i jihadisti. Ma tutti hanno giocato il gioco "perché in quel momento, Islamabad e Washington avevano poca scelta, egli analizza sul sito degli Studi Strategi di Stratfor. In questa ottica,dice Friedman,è diventato ancora più urgente per Islamabad postare le sue pedine nella regione.

Organizzando,in particolare,i gruppi afghani talebani o signori della guerra,come la rete Haqqani,con la costernazione di Washington,perché tutti sono legati ad Al-Qaeda. In questo contesto, l'annuncio dell'esercito pachistano del Lunedi,confermando l'arresto a Quetta, di tre persone vicino a bin Laden,tra cui un comandante,è stato visto come un segno di riconciliazione tra l'ISI e la CIA. Nessuno sa per quanto tempo la ripresa. Vai al contenuto Home Senza categoria Pagina Growing demands for the resignation of PM Berlusconi even from his own alliance.

Alla Camera prende solo voti. Nel Pdl cresce la fronda anti-urne: Il giornale francese in apertura riporta le parole di Napolitano: La nota di chiusura rimarca che: Con questa citazione a sostegno di Berlusconi: Ah…Padova è in Italia Anche Cameron si è espresso,vediamo la nota completa: Sus à la régulation Les dirigeants de la City se sont en particulier alarmés d'une régulation accrue des produits dérivés, mis en cause durant la crise financière de et dont la grande majorité des échanges européens s'effectue à Londres.

La City perd des emplois Ce sujet a été évoqué dans une lettre adressée par le maire conservateur de Londres, Boris Johnson à M. Politiques Hier à 10h34 Hollande: Sarkozy, candidat amnésique Abordant les " affaires " qui gènent la majorité, le candidat PS demande la suspension de Bernard Squarcini, directeur central du renseignement intérieur, mis en examen dans l'affaire des fadettes du Monde.

Ue e Fmi per una rete di emergenza per Spagna e Italia BRUXELLES — L'Fmi ha avviato una revisione degli strumenti di finanziamento a sua disposizione, con l'obiettivo di gestire i bisogni degli stati membri e in linea con le riforme in corso per aumentare l'efficiacia e la flessibilità degli strumenti di prevenzione delle crisi e mitigare i rischi di contagio.

The referendum is expected to take place on 4 or 5 December. Disorderly default' Greece's Prime Minister George Papandreou has said that the referendum is effectively a decision on whether to stay within the single currency. Bigger trouble While the eurozone debt crisis initially started with the smaller economies such as those of Greece and the Republic of Ireland, the fear is that if not controlled in time it may affect bigger economies such as Italy and Spain.

Il referendum è previsto per il 4 o il 5 dicembre. November Last updated at Last week, eurozone leaders agreed to boost the EFSF capacity to 1tn euros. Novembre Ultimo aggiornamento alle Pensioni a 67 anni, licenziamenti facili — Leggi la lettera La bozza consegnata a Bruxelles con le misure promesse dal governo.

La lettera di intenti: Like all hegemonized powers, Washington threatened the US Naval witnesses with a court marital if they spoke out, while they coddled their attackers in Tel Aviv.

Another illustration of the asymmetrical relation is found in one of the most important espionage cases during the Cold War involving an Israeli agent, Jonathan Pollard, and the Pentagon. Over several years Pollard stole and duplicated bagfuls of top-secret documents about US intelligence, counter-intelligence, strategic plans, and military weaponry, and turned them over to his Israeli handlers. This was the biggest case of espionage carried out against the US by any ally in recent history.

Pollard and his wife were convicted in The US Government privately protested to the Israeli government. The Israelis, on the other hand, through their Jewish-American allies, organized a lobby to propagandize in his favor. Eventually all top Israeli leaders and Jewish-American lobbyists campaigned for his pardon, and almost succeeded with President Clinton.

The unequal relation is clearly evident in the case of a major fugitive from justice, Marc Rich. A financier and trader, he was indicted in the US federal court on several counts of swindling and defrauding clients. He fled to Switzerland and subsequently obtained an Israeli passport and citizenship, investing hefty sums of his ill-gotten wealth into Israeli industries and charities.

Despite the seriousness of his offense, Rich hobnobbed with top political leaders in Israel and its economic elite. In the year , the Prime Minister of Israel and numerous pro-lsraeli Jewish personalities, including Rich's ex-wife, convinced Clinton to pardon him. It is worth noting that it is extraordinarily unusual for a US President to consult with a foreign ruler as Clinton consulted with Barak in dealing with an accused swindler.

It is unprecedented to pardon an indicted fugitive who fled his trial and never served any sentence. But then, the US faces great difficulty in securing any extraditions whatsoever from Israel - even private citizens wanted for committing murder in the US are not returned for trial,14 despite the purported closeness of the two states.

What are the implications for the American criminal justice system of a "home free" territory for Jewish-American criminals? The power of Israel is manifested in the numerous annual pilgrimages that influential US politicians make to Israel to declare their loyalty to the Israeli state, even during periods of intensive Israeli repression of a rebellious subject people.

In votes in the United Nations, even in the Security Council - despite overwhelming evidence of human rights violations presented by EU allies - Washington has toiled in the service of its hegemon. Sacrificing international credibility and deliberately alienating other nations, Washington labeled criticisms of Israeli racism as "anti-Semitic". But this does not mark the high point of Washington's servility to Israel. The most recent and perhaps the key indicator of US servility occurred in the months preceding and following the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

Many of those arrested were active Israeli military or intelligence operatives. Many failed polygraph questions dealing with surveillance activities in and against the United States. More seriously, federal investigators had reason to believe that the Israeli operatives gathered intelligence about the September 11 attacks in advance and did not share it with its Washington ally.

The degree of Israeli involvement in September 11 ia a tightly guarded secret. A highly placed federal investigator told Fox news there are "tie-ins". When asked to provide details, the federal investigator refused. I cannot tell you about evidence that has been gathered. It is classified information. Nothing so exemplifies the power of Israel over Washington as this case of Israeli espionage.

Even in the case of the worst attack on the American mainland in US history, Washington suppressed federally collected evidence linking known Israeli spies to possible evidence about prior knowledge. Clearly this evidence might raise questions about the links and ties between political and economic elites, as well as undermine strategic relations in the Middle East. More important, it would pit the Bush Administration against the Jewish-American Lobby and its powerful informal and formal networks in the media, finance, and in government.

Fox News obtained numerous classified documents from federal investigators probably frustrated by the cover-ups of Israeli espionage by political leaders in Washington. These documents brought to light by Carl Cameron revealed that even before September 11, as many as other Israelis had been detained or arrested in a secret investigation of arge-scale, long-term Israeli espionage in the United States.

Not one of the other of large-scale, long-term major print or electronic media reported on these arrests. Neither the President nor any Congressional leaders spoke out on Israeli's pervasive and sustained effort to obtain key US military and intelligence information.

The classified documents detailed "hundreds of incidents in cities and towns across the country" that investigators claimed could be Israeli-organized intelligence gathering activities. It aggressively collects military and industrial technology and the US is a high priority. None of the other mass media picked up on this major espionage report. No doubt the powerful pro-lsraeli influentials in the mass media played a role.

More significantly than direct "pressure", Israeli hegemony "persuades" or "intimidates" the media establishment and political leaders to operate with maximum discretion in limiting reporting about Israel's appropriation of strategic information. While the web of Israeli agents are sometimes subject to arrest, interrogation and expulsion, the Israeli state and the ministers in charge are never publicly condemned, nor are there any official diplomatic ripostes such as the symbolic temporary withdrawal of the US Ambassador.

In that context docile rulers quietly ask the Ambassador to rein in some of the more aggressive agents. September 11 and the Israelis. Following September 11 , rumors circulated throughout the Arab East that the bombing was an Israeli plot to incite Washington to attack Muslim-Arab adversaries.

These stories and their authors provided nothing more than circumstantial evidence and motive, namely that Bush's anti-terrorism campaign would legitimate Sharon's "anti-terrorist" repression of Palestinians. The stories implicating Israel were completely dismissed by all the media and political leaders across the spectrum.

Now, however, that US federal investigators have revealed that the Israelis may have known about the attack before it occurred and did not share the information, this raises further questions concerning the relationship between the Arab terrorists and the Israeli secret police. Did the Israelis penetrate the group or pick up information about them? But will the confidential information ever become public? Most likely not - for the very reason that it would expose the extent of Israeli influence in the US via its secret agents and more importantly via its powerful overseas lobby and allies in the US govemment and finance.

But then, it is not astonishing at all if we understand properly the "unique relationship" between the US Empire and Israel, a regional power. The relationship between the US - a global imperial power - and Israel, a regional power, provides us with a unique model of inter-state relations.

Israel's hegemonic position has endured under both Democratic and Republican presidencies for almost half a century. In other words it is a structural historical relation, not one based on personalities, or particular transitory policy making configurations.

Several hypotheses emerge from an examination of this unique relationship. The first stems from the fact that the territorial Israeli state has little power of persuasion, economic reach, or military clout in comparison to the major powers Europe and the US. The power of Israel is based on that of the Diaspora , the highly structured and politically and economically powerful J ewish networks which have direct and indirect access to the centers of power and propaganda in the most powerful imperial country in the world.

Trlbite is exacted via the influence of these "internal colonialists" who operate at the level of mass media opinion makers and via Congress and the Presidency. Close to 60 percent of Democratic Party funding and 35 percent of Republican Party funding comes from pro-lsraeli Jews. Through overseas networks the Israeli state can directly intervene and set the parameters to US foreign aid in the Middle East. The overseas networks play a major role in shaping the internal debate on US policy toward Israel.

Propaganda associating Israeli repression of Palestinians as the righteous response of the victims of the Holocaust has been repeated and circulated throughout the mass media.

Iranian President Ahmadinejad's suggestion that Holocaust victims might more properly be compensated by land located in Europe or in the countries that victimized them was misreported, then highly circulated to fuel, instead, the notion of a rabid anti-Semitic Iran.

From the height of tlie network to the lawyers' boardrooms, and the doctors' lounges, the pro-lsrael supporters of the network aggressively attack as "anti-Semites" any critical voices. Through local intimidation and malicious intervention in the professions, the zealots defend Israeli policy and leaders, contribute money, organize voters, and run for office. Once in office they tune in to Israeli policy needs. The phenomenon of overseas expatriates attempting to influence an imperial power is not an exclusively Jewish phenomenon.

The Cuban exiles in Miami exercise significant influence in both major parties. But in no other case has linkage led to the establishment of an enduring hegemonic relationship: Many questions remain to be answered as the Empire aggressively pursues its military expansion and the internal voices of repression narrow the terms of public debate.

As the colons extend their influence throughout the political and intellectual spheres of the US, they feel more confident in asserting Israel's superiority to it, particularly in the areas of political coercion and war. They brazenly boast of Israel's superior security system, its methods of interrogation including its techniques of torture, and demand that the US follow Israel's war agenda in the Middle East. In Israel, there is acknowledged state-sanctioned physical and mental abuse of prisoners in interrogation, which has broad public support.

Seymour Hersh even urged the US FBI and intelligence agencies to follow the Israeli secret police's tactics and use or threaten to use torture of family members of terror suspects. The US followed suit by imprisoning the wives and daughters of wanted Iraqi Baathists. Richard Perle, then highly influential in Rumsfeld's Defense Department, advocated the Israeli tactics of offensive bombing of adversaries. The Israelis decided to strike preemptively. Everything we know [sic] about Saddam Hussein forces [sic] President Bush to make a similar choice: Alan Dershowitz, Harvard Law professor, publicly endorsed both torture and repressive legislation in the US - modeled on the Israeli system of unlimited detention of Palestinians.

Moreover as representatives of Israeli hegemonic power in the US, they even try to micro manage security measures - torture in interrogation - as well as becoming vociferous advocates of a generalized Middle East war. The colons have successfully influenced the US government to block any EU initiatives toward international mediation , as well as the US-sponsored Mitchell Plan, advocating peace observers in the occupied territories.

In a word, the US, despite its occasional inconsequential criticism of Israel's excesses, has not only been an unconditional supporter of Israel, but it has done so in the context of a prolonged bloody repression and occupation of Palestinian territories, which Washington is a party to securing.

Even more dangerous is the irrational paranoia that the colons transfer from Israeli politics to the US. All Arabs are suspect as was evident in the Zionist-instigated congressional outcry about the purchase of US ports by a Dubai firm.

Middle Eastern adversaries should be threatened if not bombed. Secret military tribunals and summary justice should be meted out to suspected terrorists.

The mass media is especially tuned to pick up the Israeli paranoid syndrome: The paranoid style of politics had led to Israel's attacks on Arab countries in the Middle East, espionage on the US, illegal purchase of nuclear devices in the US, and unremitting violence against the Palestinians and Lebanese. The assimilation of the Israeli hyper-paranoid style by the US has vast and dangerous consequences not only for the Mid-east but also for the rest of the world, and for democratic freedom in the US.

What the intellectual colons and other Israeli publicists forget to mention is that Israeli security policy in the Occupied Territories is a total disaster: Hundreds of Israeli citizens have been killed and injured.

Tens of thousands of educated Israelis have fled the country precisely because of insecurity and the proximity of violence, which neither the Shin Ben, the Army nor the settlers are capable of preventing. A few Israeli intellectuals are especially embittered by the enormous costs of the settlement movement.

Blind to Israel's security failures, the colons insist on creating conditions for internal repression and external war. Given their influential role In the mass media, their prominence in the editorial and opinion pages of the most prestigious newspapers, the colons' message reaches far beyond their limited numbers and the mediocrity of their intellect. Location and money can make up for their psychological and political pathologies as well as override any qualms about dual loyalties.

The question of who is financing the Israeli state is basic because Israel as we know it today is not a viable state without massive external support. Foreign Assistance" points out in its opening statement: Billions of dollars are raised from a variety of Jewish and non-Jewish institutions to sustain the Israeli war machine , its policy of generous subsidies for Jews enticed to settle in colonies in the Occupied Territories and in Israel - sufficient to place the country as the world's 28th highest in living standards for Israel's Jewish citizens.

Without external aid Israel's economy would require severe cutbacks in living standards and working conditions, leading to the likely flight of most Israeli professionals, businessmen, and recent overseas immigrants.

The Israeli military budget would be reduced and Israel would be obligated to reduce its military interventions in the Arab East and the Occupied Territories. Israel would cease being a rentier state living on overseas subsidies and would be obligated to engage in productive activity - a return to farming, manufacture and services minus the exploitation of low paid Asian maids, imported Eastern European farm workers, and Palestinian construction laborers. Europe continues to privilege the importation of Israeli exports28 and financial services, despite overt and malicious attacks by leaders of both Israeli parties.

Prominent Jewish organizations linked to major parties in France and England have muted any efforts to use the "trade card" to pressure Israel to accept European Union or United Nations mediation. European trade and financial ties to Israel however are not the basic prop for the Israeli war machine.

The principle basis for long-term, large-scale financial support is found in the US, among public and private institutions. In the United States there are essentially four basic sources of financial, ideological and political support for the Israeli rentier economy:.

Wealthy Jewish contributors and powerful disciplined fund-raising organizations. The mass media, particularly the New York Times, Hollywood and the major television networks. There is substantial overlap in these four institutional configurations. For example, Jewish supporters in the Israeli lobby work closely with Congressional leaders to secure long-term, large-scale US military and economic aid for Israel. Most of the mass media and a few trade unions are influenced by unconditional supporters of the Israeli war machine.

Pro-lsrael Jews are disproportionately represented in the financial, political, professional, academic, real estate, insurance and mass media sectors of the American economy. While Jews are a minority in each and every one of these categories, their disproportionate power and influence stems from the fact that they function collectively: Operating from their strategic positions in the power structure, they are able to influence policy and censor any dissident commentators or views from circulating freely in the communications and political system.

In the political sphere, pro-lsraeli politicians and powerful Jewish organizations have joined forces with and even animate 29 pro-lsrael ultra rightwing mass-based Christian fundamentalist powerful political leaders tied to the military-industrial complex, such as Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld and Vice President Cheney.

Israel's unconditional support of Washington's Cold War and subsequent anti-terrorist military offensive has further strengthened ideological and military ties between US rightwing political leaders, pro-lsraeli politicians and the leaders of the leading Jewish organizations. The politics of Washington's new imperialism coincides splendidly with the Sharon-Olmert conquest and destruction of the Occupied Territories.

Wealthy and organized Jewish organizations, compliant Congressional representatives and rightwing fundamentalist organizations are not the only financial supporters of Israel. Jewish support for Israel exercised in the above-mentioned sectors of American society leads in turn to an exacerbated support for Israel by the US government that is demonstrable in the lavish dispensation of US aid to Israel.

Loan guarantees is the area of financial support to Israel that the US government attacks to indicate its displeasure with Israeli settlement activities. What might be called optImization techniques are employed to further increase and disguise? In addition, the U. Treasury notes, according to AID officials. Treasury note interest in In addition, the US has supported the development of the Israeli military-defense industry, inter alia through:. Most US military aid is for purchases of US arms.

According to Ed Vuillamy, writing in the London Observer:. Any major development in or initiated by Israel seems to give rise to its own "special costs" which in turn are placed at the door of the United States, whether it concerns support for the migration of Soviet or Ethiopian Jews, or withdrawal from occupied territories.

According to the Development Corporation for Israel prospectus, the bonds are used for eight categories of infrastructure development projects, such as building ports, power grids, transportation, communications, etc.

But as Russell Mokhiber points out:. What the prospectus does not mention, however, is that such 'development' projects also include Israeli settlements in the West Bank and Gaza. Other bond revenues are transferred from the Israeli govemment's development account to its ordinary budget, to be spent on the military, the Israeli intelligence services, and other agencies, according to the statistical abstract published each year by the Israeli government.

Rank and file trade union members might have been surprised to learn that their pension funds had been invested in Israel Bonds with below normal rates of return and higher risk. Despite the poor investment quality of Israel onds, some of the largest US trade unions, employee pension funds, and major multi-national corporations have collectively loaned billions of dollars to the Israeli regime.

In all cases, the decisions to purchase a foreign government's bonds were made by the trade union bosses and corporate fund managers without consulting the membership or stockholders.

The Palestinians didn't have a damn thing until Israel came in. Many of the trade unions, which are purchasers of Israeli bonds, are controlled or influenced by the Mafia. The Teamsters Union is the biggest purchaser of Israel Bonds ; it is also the union which has seen more senior officials indicted for Mafia ties, illicit use of union funds, and massive robbery of membership pension funds. In this case the trade union Mafioso were buying favorable propaganda from the mass media and support from the "respectable" Jewish organizations via the purchase of Israel Bonds.

Union pension funds have also been used by trade union bureaucrats to purchase Israel Bonds. Clearly the Jewish trade union bosses have a greater affinity for the State of Israel and its oppression of Palestinian workers than they have with their own poorly organized workers, employed under some of the worst working conditions in the US. Israel Bond promoters, with support from Mafia-influenced corrupt trade union bosses, have sold vast holdings of Israel bonds to labor organizations at interest rates below those of other available securities and well below what most investors would expect from loans to an economically troubled foreign government like Israel.

Many factors accounted for the US trade union bosses channeling their members pension funds and union dues into Israel Bonds: Ideological and ethnic ties between Jewish trade union leaders and Israel has been a second factor. In Israel two out of three Israelis 65 percent polled in late April supported Sharon and almost 90 percent believed the regime's propaganda that the UN commission to investigate Israeli devastation of the Occupied Territories "will not be fair to Israel.

Obviously the shrinking minority of Jews in Israel who oppose the military machine have little or no influence in policy, in the media, or in securing overseas financial support. Interestingly, the US did vote in favor of the resolution creating a UN investigatory commission of Israel's near total destruction of Jenin in the spring of But the UN investigation got no further than its creation.

It evoked the hostility of the entire Israeli political class. Shimon Perez then the self-styled labor moderate in Sharon's government accused the plus member United Nations Organization of "blood libel". The Israeli security cabinet decided that Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General, had not met its demands for amending the mission's mandate, "so there is no possibility of beginning the inquiry Apparently having lost his trial of strength with Ariel Sharon, the Israeli prime minister, Mr Annan recommended to the UN Security Council that the team - which has been waiting in Geneva for three days for permission to go to Israel - should be sent home.

Wealthy and powerful reactionary Jews in the Diaspora also gravitated toward Sharon. Seven of the eight billionaire Russian Mafia Oligarchs have donated generously to the Israeli state, were on excellent terms with Sharon and Shimon Peres, and have no use for dissident military reservists. In fact, two of these, Israeli-Russian partners of the Russian oil company, Yukos , have taken up residence in Israel to avoid Interpol Interdiction, while a third, Boris Berezovsky, though resident in London, is an Israeli citizen.

Because of powerful unconditional external financial and military support primarily from influential Jews in the US, Christian Fundamentalists, the military industrial complex, Pentagon extremists, and corrupt US trade unionists, Israel is able to defy world public opinion, slander humanitarian organizations and human rights leaders, and brazenly continue its genocidal policies.

Israeli leaders know "their people": They know that their bankers, professlonals and fundamentalists will back them up to the last murdered Palestinian: The huge tumout of politicians at the annual AIPAC conference during the massacres in the Rafah refugee camp in the Gaza strip confirms that they in turn supported the butchers of Rafah. Wright Mills once wrote that the US "power elite" ruled by denying it held power.

The Zionist elite follows this formula, but defends itself by accusing its adversaries of being "anti-Semites" and pursuing retributive measures that would please former Senator Joseph McCarthy. The ZPC can best be understood as a complex network of interrelated formal and informal groupings, operating at the international, national, regional and local levels, and directly and systematically subordinated to the State of Israel, its power holders and key decision makers.

Influence is wielded via directinfluence by Zionist representatives in the Government most notably in the Pentagon under Bush both in the Executive branch as well as in the Congress, and indirectly via its use of campaign funds 1 to influence the selection of candidates within the two major political parties and 2 to defeat critics of Israel and reward elected officials who will toe the Israel line.

The parameters of political debate on Israel-related issues - which have broadened over time - are shaped by pervasive Zionist and Jewish organizational influence in the mass media, censoring and virulently attacking critics, and pushing pro-lsrael "news" and commentaries.

The mass media in the US, particularly the "respectable" New York Times, has been in the forefront of propagandizing Israeli conquest and destruction as a "defensive", "anti-terrorist war".

Not a single voice or editorial in the New York Times has spoken of the mass killing of Palestinian civilians and Israel's destruction of priceless Christian historical and religious sites that go back over years. While Israel's war machine destroys ancient monasteries and the heritage of world culture, the pro-lsraeli mass media in the US focus their critical lenses on the scandals of the Catholic clergy.

The Church's protests at the Israeli shelling of the Church of the Nativity and the murder of those seeking sanctuary are thus silenced. The fourth circle of influence is through local and sectoral organizations, local and state Jewish federations, and through them in local professional bodies, trade unions, pension funds. This is probably the most serious threat as it inhibits average US citizens from voicing their doubts and criticisms of Israeli policy, and mutes the effectiveness of the advocacy sector of American society, which in other arenas has assumed a critical progressive role in relation to US policy.

All over the US, local editors, critical intellectuals and activists, and even doctors have been branded as "neo-Nazis" and have suffered threatening phone calls and visits by local pro-lsrael zealots - including 'respectable' members of the Jewish community.

Moreover the ZPC's formal and informal structure has a crucial dynamic element to it: Secondly those non-Jewish or even non-Zionist political, media and civic leaders influenced by the ZPC in turn influence their constituency, multiplying several fold the initial influence of their "hegemons".

The relative absence of an informal, organized and active grassroots democratic foreign policy movement, particularly in relation to Mideast policy, had for some time given the ZPC a clear field with virtually no competitors. Only recently has it been challenged by a growing campaign for divestment from Israel which has won varying degrees of support from Christian denominations Presbyterians, Methodists, Episcopalians and on university campuses - though this movement proceeds only tentatively and with much organized opposition.

As an instance, the City of Somerville, MA intended to divest from Israel, then backed off after Jewish representations to city council. Over time the same pattern of Zionist influence has manifested itself in US executive agencies. The State DepartmentÕs "Arabists are being replaced by pro-Zionists as is the case with senior civilian militarists in the Pentagon, in the Mideast think tanks and the Council of Foreign Relations, among others.

It should be noted that the so-called "single issue" US-Middle East Policy focus of the ZPC of the past has been replaced by the new Zionist strategies in the Pentagon and rightwing think tanks who link the expansion of Israeli power beyond Palestine to US-European relations especially French bashing , US nuclear policy, and US military and energy strategy.

This analytical framework is useful in understanding the US-lraq war, and macro-imperial policy as well as micro-colonial practices. The major theoretical strategist of US World Empire is Paul Wolfowitz who first presented a detailed outline of action in The Clinton Administration's vigorous intervention in favor of Yeltsin's seizure of power and backing of the Russian Jewish Oligarchs played a major role in dismembering and weakening its former adversary to world domination.

Clinton's unconditional support for Israel and more importantly, for the formulation of a Mideast strategy convergent with Israeli foreign policy was tied to three sets of policies:. Direct Zionist influence over US Mideast policy was shaped by Secretary of State Madeline Albright who, while a convert from Catholicism to the more elite Episcopalian Church, benefited from her newly-discovered Jewish ancestry. Albright infamously justified the US-induced deaths of , Iraqi children during her tenure in office, declaring "It was worth it.

President Clinton and the Democrats laid the basis for the eventual capture of US foreign policy making by the Zionists in the subsequent Bush administration by accepting Zionists in strategic foreign policy positions influencing Mideast policy and shaping US policy to fit Israeli expansionist aims.

To be sure, Clinton and his "moderate" Zionists did not threaten Israel's critics such as Saudi Arabia or the rest of the Arab countries with military attacks - as did the Bush regime dominated by the ultra-Zionist militarists. Nor did his regime follow the Israeli line of accusing all of Europe, especially France, of being anti-Semites for criticizing Israel's slaughter of Palestinians. The Clinton regime and its moderate Zionist influentials believed it was possible to establish US dominance by consulting with Europe and conservative Arab regimes and sharing the economic benefits of imperial spoils in the Mideast while supporting Israeli expansionism.

The Bush regime represented a qualitative advance in Zionist power in US policies, both foreign and domestic. The key economic policymaker was Alan Greenspan, head of the US Central Bank Federal Reserve Bank , a long time crony of Wall Street financial interests and promoter of the major pro-lsraeli investment houses - responsible for the speculative boom and bust economy of the 's.

The influence on US Middle East policy of this neo-conservative cabal far exceeded their formal positions because they were backed by an array of influential Zionist academic ideologues Kagan, Cohen, Pipes , political punits Kristols, Krauthamer, Peretz etc and directors of war think-tanks Pipes, Rubin who continue to be given constant access to the opinion pages of the major US newspapers, or interviewed as Middle East "experts" on pro-lsraeli television and radio shows - advancing their war propaganda designed to promote US defense of Israel's Middle East agenda, despite the evident quagmire in Iraq, and growing public rejection of that war.

These policy and opinion makers, backed by the mass media, worked in close consultation and in tandem with the major Jewish organizations in the US and in close "consultations" with top officials in the Sharon regime - and will continue to do so with Olmert. Mossad agents, Israeli diplomats and key officials in the Sharon regime had free access to the offices of the Zionist officials in Washington and interchanged information on how to optimize Israeli interests.

Despite Herculean efforts by Feith et al. It was a classic case, as became evident when the secret Downing Street Memo was made public, of fitting the facts to suit the policy. Zionist power manifested itself first in the making of the war and then in imposing impunity on the crimes of the war makers in the government.

The Zionists had knowingly painted a totally unrealistic and false picture of the war, its consequences and the likely response of the Iraqi resistance to an Israeli-style conquest and colonization - knowingly, indeed, since it was they who put the figures in place whose purported special knowledge supported their arguments.

The Zionists were initially able to marginalize high military officials like General Anthony Zinni who questioned the war and opposed the way the war was launched, and the length and breadth of the engagement.

They shut out all debate on who would benefit and who would lose from the war: US soldiers killed, rising oil and energy costs, huge budget deficits, and, of course, massive loss of life and property among the Iraqis. Wolfowitz claimed that the invading army would be welcomed as liberators evoking the liberation of Paris. Perle claimed "the Arabs" would offer little or no resistance being a "tribal" society.

Kagan claimed that "one big bomb" would silence the Arab street and public opinion. While the US military had conducted a campaign of forced demodernization in the first Iraq War, attacking even civilian technological infrastructure related to water and sewage, in the second attack on Iraq by the Bush, Jr. They promoted the massive purge of the entire Iraqi civil service, professions, universities, schools and hospitals of Baathists, as well as the dismantling of the Iraqi army and dismissal of , Iraqi military and police personnel - over the shocked objections of experienced senior US military officers who had expected to work with the surrendered military and administrative structre of Iraq to control the colony.

This opened the way for the pillage of Iraq's complex infrastructure and historic treasures and libraries, as well as the growth of criminal gangs involved in theft, kidnap for ransom, murder and rape - activities virtually unknown under the tight Baathist regime.

Rumsfeld dismissed the massive destruction of Iraqi society as the "messiness of freedom". Many top US military officials objected, as did the first US pro- consul, former general Jay Garner, who stated that he "fell out with the Bush circle because he wanted free elections and rejected an imposed programme of privatization.

However, instead of easy conquest, the 'Israel First' Pentagonistas provoked a massive popular opposition, which unified the religious and secular groups in opposition to the US occupation, and swelled the ranks of the armed resistance with thousands of discharged armed professionals. In the course of pursuing a policy of strengthening Israel's regional position, the Zionists weakened the US colonial occupation and any medium term plans to convert Iraq into a US oil colony.

The result has been thousands of US military and client collaborators dead, maimed and wounded, and a burgeoning worldwide opposition, particularly in the Arab East, and among several hundred million Muslims.

The Israel First Pentagonistas successfully promoted the idea that the Israeli military and intelligence experts had a lot to teach their ignorant American counterparts on "urban warfare" and "information gathering" draw- ing on Israel's wealth of experience of over 50 years of expelling and destroying Palestinian communities and developing interrogation and torture techniques on Palestinian and Lebanese captives.

The torture-interrogation techniques taught by the Israeli instructors converged nicely, updating and refining the older ClA torture manuals, more specifically introducing specificities pertaining to torturing Muslims and especially Arabs. Congressional hearings and mass media reportages even provoked a burst of public disapproval of the invasion of Iraq and Bush's handling of the occupation.

Throughout the country there were calls, including from members of Congress, for Rumsfeld's resignation. Curiously enough, there were virtually no calls for the resignation of the Israel First Pentagonistas - who were equally implicated and responsible for the mass torture of Muslim detainees.

According to Newsweek, it was Douglas Feith who was actually in charge of setting policy on Iraqi detainees. As for number 3, despite the fact that he is still a key subject of a Phase 11 Senate Intelligence Committee investigation on pre-war planning and post-invasion failures Phase I focused primarily on intelligence failures , Douglas Feith was invited to teach a course on the Bush Administration's strategy behind the war on terrorism to students in the Edmund A. While the Mossad was later chastised for "intelligence failures" by the Israeli Knesset after release of the Steinitz Report on March 29, , their Zionist counterparts in the Pentagon - Shulsky, Wolfowitz, Feith, and Abrams - however they may have been publicly criticized and even investigated, have yet to be officially and publicly reprimanded for their collaboration with the Mossad.

Much will depend on an ongoing investigation by the FBI - which holds more promise than the Congressional whitewashing. As Robert Dreyfuss put it in The Nahon: The FBI wants to know. Amid the widespread condemnation of these war crimes and the media exposure of the systematic lies of the Pentagonistas, the fear that the highly influential and visible role of the Israel Firsters might lead to an anti- lsrael backlash raised alarm bells among some of the most astute Congressional Zionists.

The men in charge have let down the soldiers in uniform. Simply replacing Secretary Rumsfeld will change little at the Pentagon if his discredited team of advisers remains in high-level positions. It is time for us to bring in new civilian leadership at the Defense Department". Several former top US military professionals objected to the Zionist control over US policy and their close network of collaborators.

The Rumsfeld-Zionist group's monopolization of military policy, war strategy, military calculations and military promotions all alienated the military high command. Some who clearly foresaw the disastrous consequences of the policies of the Israel First crowd on US global ambitions were silenced and marginalized.

It is likely that the release of the torture photos to the media was deliberately encouraged or promoted by highly placed military officials or former officials as a way of discrediting Rumsfeld and the Pentagon Zionists. However to gain an "honorable" withdrawal they must know that they have to remove Rumsfeld and his Zionist colleagues, whose criteria for evaluating the war has less to do with the aims and standing of the US military and more to do with Israeli expansionist goals in the Middle East.

While the Pentagon Zionists and the powerful network of pro-lsrael Jewish organizations have seen their Iraqi serial war strategy fall behind schedule, they have succeeded in securing Presidential economic sanctions against Syria and binding US political support for Sharon's and now Olmert's destruction and annexation of the remnant of Palestine. Moreover the leading Jewish organizations were able to secure a near unanimous vote in Congress to 9 in favor of BushÕs declaration supporting Israel's 'new borders' in Palestine.

After Bush put all of his limited credibility in Mideast politics in his "Roadmap" for a Middle East peace accord, Sharon unilaterally declared a policy of annexation and separation" and told Bush to swallow it. All the major Jewish organizations backed Sharon's plan. Bush submitted and endorsed this, alienating virtually every European country and all Arab countries, and clearly demonstrating the slavish complicity of US policymakers who once again renounced US Middle East imperial interests in order to accommodate Israel's expansion into the remnants of Palestine.

Bush's policy reversal was backed by the vast majority of Congress who are forever fearful of Zionist-Jewish retaliation for the least deviation from unconditional and total support for Israel. During the invasion and occupation of Iraq, some Congress members have been critical of the war.

Hundreds of thousands of people have demonstrated their disapproval. Many Jewish Americans have participated in the protests and in some cases have led the protests. Mass media outlets have on occasion especially after the torture expose publicized adverse news on the war tortures, civilian victims, wedding parties bombed, and homes and orchards bulldozed. While the US pursues the war in Iraq, the Israeli government has been equally brutal: They have also resorted to the routine hooding, manacling and torture of detainees.

All the major pro-lsrael Jewish groups in the US, high and low, have defended all these crimes against humanity, successfully pressuring both major parties, the Congress and President, to say nothing - no protest, no investigation, no punishment. This, while the US, smarting from the exposure of torture atAbu Ghraib and pursued by the UN Committee on Torture, Amnesty International and other human rights groups, has been forced to put on trial more than armed forces' staff accused of prisoner abuse in Afghanistan and Iraq, the scope of which in and of itself points to a practice rooted in policy.

There is presently an inability in America even to formulate or sustain a discourse related to the subject of Israeli influence on the United States. Such an opportunity seerned to open with the courageous publication of a well-documented essay written by Professor Walt of Harvard University and Professor Mearsheimer of University of Chicago critical of the Lobby's influence on US Middle East policy.

However, a virulent campaign against Mearsheimer and Walt was then waged by all the major Jewish publications and pro lsrael organizations. From the ultra-rightwing Orthodox Jewish Press which claims to be the largest "independent" Jewish newspaper in the US , to the formerly social democratic Forward, to the Jewish Weekly, all have launched, together with all the major Jewish organizations, a propaganda campaign of defamation "the new Protocols of Zion", "anti-Semitic", "sources from Neo-Nazi websites The Jewish authoritarians have already partially succeeded.

Their press releases have been published by the mass media without allowing for rebuttal by the academics under attack. Harvard University has demanded that the identification of the Harvard Kennedy School be removed from the paper. The financier of the professorial chair in his name which Professor Walt, as academic dean, occupies at the Harvard Kennedy School, is no longer mentioned in his publication.

Ultra-Zionist and torture advocate Professor Dershowitz and his fellow Harvard zealots called into question their moral and academic qualification to teach - this concerning professors of the highest standing, with an established record at America's top universities.

In both the United States and France, legislation is being prepared to equate anti-Zionism with anti-Semitism and to criminalize as a 'hate crime' the free expression of outrage over Israeli atrocities and any criticism of the Lobby's control of US Middle East policy.

Other attacks on American academics include the effort by Daniel pipes, director of Middle East Forum, to establish a campus blacklist througli his neo-McCarthyite Campus-Watch website.

Pipes is part of a "band of neo-conservative pundits with strong allegiances to Israel [who] took on the task of launching a more focused assault on Middle East Scholars. In New York City, a major theater production of the life of Rachael Corrie, an American humanitarian volunteer murdered in the Occupied Territories by an Israeli Defense Force soldier driving a bulldozer, was cancelled because of Jewish pressure and financial threats.

The theater admitted that the cancellation had to do with the "sensitivities" and pocket book of the Israel-Firsters. Even the progressive magazine, Mother Jones, went to the trouble of running an article critical of Corrie, heading it:. Martyr, idiot, dedicated, deluded. Why did this American college student crushed by an Israeli bulldozer put her life on the line? And did it matter?

The pro-lsrael lobby's defense and support of a minority opinion in favor of Middle East aggression is now extending its authoritarian reach into undermining the basic right of Americans to free and open expression. There is no group of investors or financiers willing to fund a civil rights campaign in defense of free speech, academic and artistic freedom, to counter the minority Zionist financial and professional elite.

The leaders of the peace movement, both Jews and non-Jews, reject any effort to include Israel's genocidal war against Palestine for fear of alienating the "public" read the major Jewish organizations and the self-styled progressive Jews, who are ever protective of everything Jewish - even war crimes.

Worse still, with a few rare exceptions, the "progressive" Jewish critics of the war and Israel are forever and adamantly determined to avoid criticizing the role of powerful Zionist policymakers in the government, their ties to Israel and the significant support they receive from the major Jewish organizations in all matters which pertain directly or remotely to Israeli interests.

With blind simplicity, they all see Israel as simply a "tool" of the US for weakening the Arabs in the service of US oil interests. Apparently they have never consulted US petrol CEOs, advisers or investment brokers, who all agree that US support for Israel is destabilizing the region, threatening oil supplies, boosting prices to US consumers and creating enemies out of Arab client rulers who invest in the US, buy US currency to keep it from collapsing, and raise OPEC quotas to help lower US prices.

By its blind support for Israeli colonial brutality, the US has alienated several hundred million Muslims, millions of Arabs of all faiths, the great majority of Europeans, Afncans and Asians, thereby heightening US global isolation.

The American alliance with Israel has been one of the world's greatest energizers of anti-imperialist movements, crossing racial, religious and gender boundaries. Even the crude, virulent anti-European ideology propagated by Israeli ideologues and their transmission belt Jewish organizations in the US and Europe has influenced the US government.

At a time when Muslims and Arabs are conquered and persecuted, with thousands jailed and many "disappeared" by the US, Israeli and European governments, Secretary of State Powell convened a meeting in Europe on the rising danger of And the UN, under Kofi Annan, followed suit with its own meeting on 'anti-Semitism' during the ongoing devastation in the Rafah refugee camps in the Gaza Strip!

The major Jewish organizations repeat the Sharon and now Olmert line that "anti-Zionists" are "anti-Semites" - and it becomes es- tablished policy in the US and in some countries of Europe. Even Webster's recent dictionary equates anti-Zionism with anti-Semitism. Surprisingly, in the midst of this, the major Jewish organizations in France openly condemned the manufactured hysteria as an Israeli mechanism to encourage the migration of French Jews to Israel.

Jews in North America, South America and Europe are disproportionately in the highest paid positions, with the highest proportion in the exclusive, prestigious private universities, with disproportionate influence in finance and the media. It is clear that "anti-Semitism" is a very marginal global issue and, in point of fact, that Jews are the most influential ethnic group. The tragic myopia or perverse refusal of leftist Jews to face up to the prejudicial role of the major Zionist and Jewish groups promoting the Israel First policy and imposing it on the electoral agendas substantially undermines their and our efforts to secure peace and justice in the Middle East and to forge a democratic US foreign policy.

S Country Reports on Terrorism indicates that terrorism is on the rise, with the bulk of the increase in Iraq. In the first three months of this year, the rate of export was just over 1. Geoffrey Kemp, head of the National Security Council is cited as the source of the epithet in relation to Saddam. Our source for the maps is http: Military Personnel on June 8, by elements of the Israeli military forces. See also Statements by Ward Boston, Jr.

Amérique du Nord

La pensée rend libre!

Closed On:

She herself told me: Au centre du sanctuaire, surprise:

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