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Douglas DC-3

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Le Douglas DC-3 est un avion de transport bimoteur à hélices, produit par la compagnie américaine Douglas Aircraft entre et Sa vitesse et son rayon d'action révolutionnèrent le transport aérien.. Conçu à l'origine comme une évolution du Douglas DC-2 permettant le transport nocturne et confortable de passagers civils, le DC-3 est . Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi. The main headquarters of Toyota is located in a 4-story building in Toyota. As of , the head office has the "Toyopet" Toyota logo and the words "Toyota Motor".

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It also holds a Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City , Aichi. As of , the head office has the "Toyopet" Toyota logo and the words "Toyota Motor". The Toyota Technical Center, a story building, and the Honsha plant, Toyota's second plant engaging in mass production and formerly named the Koromo plant, are adjacent to one another in a location near the headquarters.

Vinod Jacob from The Hindu described the main headquarters building as "modest". Its Tokyo office is located in Bunkyo , Tokyo. Its Nagoya office is located in Nakamura-ku , Nagoya.

In , Toyota Motor Co. Since , the two entities had existed as separate companies as a prerequisite for reconstruction in postwar Japan. Shoichiro Toyoda presided over Toyota Motor Sales in preparation for the consummation of the merger that occurred in Shoichiro then succeeded his uncle Eiji as the President of the combined organization that then became known as Toyota Motor Corporation.

On June 14, , Toyota Motor Corporation. Additionally, Vice Chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada replaced Fujio Cho as chairman, as the latter became an honorary chairman while Toyoda remains in the post of President. Toyota has been publicly traded in Japan since and internationally since As reported on its consolidated financial statements, Toyota has consolidated subsidiaries and affiliates. The principle of jidoka , which means the machine stops itself when a problem occurs, became later a part of the Toyota Production System.

Looms were built on a small production line. In , the patent for the automatic loom was sold to the British company Platt Brothers [20] , generating the starting capital for the automobile development.

The production of Toyota automobiles was started in as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works devoted to the production of automobiles under the direction of the founder's son, Kiichiro Toyoda.

The Toyota Motor Co. The sales price was 3, yen, yen cheaper than Ford or GM cars. In September , the company ran a public competition to design a new logo. Of 27, entries, the winning entry was the three Japanese katakana letters for "Toyoda" in a circle. Since toyoda literally means "fertile rice paddies", changing the name also prevented the company from being associated with old-fashioned farming.

The newly formed word was trademarked and the company was registered in August as the Toyota Motor Company.

The word "Toyopet" Japanese article was a nickname given to the Toyota SA due to its small size, as the result of a naming contest the Toyota Company organized in However, when Toyota eventually entered the American market in with the Crown, the name was not well received due to connotations of toys and pets.

By the early s, the US had begun placing stiff import tariffs on certain vehicles. Toyota received its first Japanese Quality Control Award at the start of the s and began participating in a wide variety of motorsports. Due to the oil crisis , consumers in the lucrative US market began turning to make small cars with better fuel economy. American car manufacturers had considered small economy cars to be an entry-level product, and their small vehicles employed a low level of quality to keep the price low.

Conservative Toyota held on to rear-wheel-drive designs for longer than most; while a clear first in overall production they were only third in production of front-wheel-drive cars in , behind Nissan and Honda.

In part due to this, Nissan's Sunny managed to squeeze by the Corolla in numbers built that year. The factory was an old General Motors plant that had been closed for two years. It is currently the site of Tesla, Inc. Toyota then started to establish new brands at the end of the s, with the launch of their luxury division Lexus in In the s, Toyota began to branch out from producing mostly compact cars by adding many larger and more luxurious vehicles to its lineup, including a full-sized pickup, the T and later the Tundra , several lines of SUVs, a sport version of the Camry , known as the Camry Solara.

They would also launch newer iterations of their sports cars, namely the MR2 , Celica , and Supra during this era. Bases in Indiana , Virginia , and Tianjin were also set up. In , Toyota's Toyo Trust and Banking merged with two other banks to form UFJ Bank , which was accused of corruption by Japan's government for making bad loans to alleged Yakuza crime syndicates with executives accused of blocking Financial Service Agency inspections.

In , Toyota managed to enter a Formula One works team and establish joint ventures with French motoring companies Citroën and Peugeot a year after Toyota started producing cars in France. A youth-oriented marque for North America, Scion , was introduced in Toyota ranked eighth on Forbes list of the world's leading companies for the year [35] but slid to 55th for In , Toyota released an update of its full-sized truck, the Tundra, produced in two American factories, one in Texas and one in Indiana.

The company has also found recent success with its smaller models—the Corolla and Yaris. In , Toyota, along with large parts of the Japanese automotive industry, suffered from a series of natural disasters. Toyota is estimated to have lost production of , units to the tsunami and production of , units to the floods.

On February 10, , it was announced that Toyota would cease manufacturing vehicles and engines in Australia by the end of The head office will remain in Port Melbourne and the Altona plant will be retained for other functions. The workforce is expected to be reduced from 3, to 1, The automaker narrowly topped global sales for the first half of , selling 5.

Volkswagen AG , which recorded sales of 5. The company admitted the move was in response to a probe foreshadowed earlier in the month by China's National Development and Reform Commission of Toyota's Lexus spare-parts policies, as part of an industry-wide investigation into what the Chinese regulator considers exorbitantly high prices being charged by automakers for spare parts and after-sales servicing.

In March , Toyota partnered with Yanmar to create a fibreglass pleasure boat using Yanmar outboard marine diesel engines or Toyota inboard engines. In January , Toyota announced its first-ever integration of smartphone control currently only available for Apple phones with Apple Carplay and smartwatch controllers with Amazon Alexa in the Avalon [48].

By using this hardware, Toyota can provide various connected services emergency care, vehicle service, voice commands for navigation, etc. Moving forward, Toyota aims to equip most new passenger vehicles in its domestic market with DCM. From November through , Toyota recalled more than 9 million cars and trucks worldwide in several recall campaigns , and briefly halted production and sales. In October , Toyota announced a recall of 7.

The move came after a series of recalls between and in which it pulled back around 10 million cars amidst claims of faulty mechanics. Toyota never agreed to be at fault for the problem. In early November , Toyota USA enlisted a recall involving defective inflaters and propellant devices that may deploy improperly in the event of a crash, shooting metal fragments into vehicle occupants.

More than 7 million vehicles are potentially affected in the United States. This recall only affects vehicles equipped with Takata airbags released after the year in North America. The airbags were manufactured by Takata automotive manufacturing.

Toyota is offering a free repair to all affected vehicles worldwide. In , Toyota entered the passenger car market with its Model AA and held a competition to establish a new logo emphasizing speed for its new product line. After receiving 27, entries, one was selected that additionally resulted in a change of its moniker to "Toyota" from the family name "Toyoda". The new name was believed to sound better, and its eight-stroke count in the Japanese language was associated with wealth and good fortune.

The original logo is no longer found on its vehicles but remains the corporate emblem used in Japan. Still, no guidelines existed for the use of the brand name, so "TOYOTA", which was used throughout most of the world, led to inconsistencies in its worldwide marketing campaigns.

To remedy this, Toyota introduced a new worldwide logo in October to commemorate the 50th year of the company, and to differentiate it from the newly released luxury Lexus brand. The logo made its debut on the Toyota Celsior and quickly gained worldwide recognition.

The three ovals in the new logo combine to form the letter "T", which stands for Toyota. The overlapping of the two perpendicular ovals inside the larger oval represents the mutually beneficial relationship and trust between the customer and the company while the larger oval surrounding both of these inner ovals represents the "global expansion of Toyota's technology and unlimited potential for the future". The new logo started appearing on all printed material, advertisements, dealer signage, and most of the vehicles themselves in In predominantly Chinese-speaking countries or regions using traditional Chinese characters , e.

These are the same characters as the founding family's name "Toyoda" in Japanese. In Japan, Toyota currently maintains separate dealership sales channels. Toyota's five channel dealerships in Japan chronology in Japanese. Hino products were sold at specific Hino locations and shared at Toyota Diesel Store locations after Toyota acquired the company in In , selected Japanese dealership locations were given a special designation called "Area 86" that resembled the North American Toyota network, called Scion , to sell the Toyota 86 , building on the marketing approach started with WiLL branded products.

The following is a list of all past and present models and where they were available at retail channels nationally. Most models were exclusive to particular retail chains, while some models, like the Prius, are available at all sales channels. Toyota's management philosophy has evolved from the company's origins and has been reflected in the terms " Lean Manufacturing " and Just In Time Production , which it was instrumental in developing. Many businesses worldwide have adopted a similar approach to manufacturing.

In April , Toyota adopted the "Toyota Way ", an expression of values and conduct guidelines that all Toyota employees should embrace. Under the two headings of Respect for People and Continuous Improvement , Toyota summarizes its values and conduct guidelines with these five principles: According to external observers, the Toyota Way has four components: Toyota has long been recognized as an industry leader in manufacturing and production.

Three stories of its origin have been found, one that they studied Piggly-Wiggly's just-in-time distribution system, [79] one that they followed the writings of W. As described by external observers of Toyota, the principles of the Toyota Way are: Toyota has grown from its origins in Japan during the s to become a large multinational corporation. It displaced GM and became the world's largest automobile maker for the year The world headquarters of Toyota are located in its home country in Toyota City , Japan.

Its subsidiary, Toyota Financial Services sells financing and participates in other lines of business. Toyota brands include Scion and Lexus and the corporation is part of the Toyota Group. They also acquired 5. Toyota has introduced new technologies, including one of the first mass-produced hybrid gasoline-electric vehicles, the Prius, of which it has sold 2 million globally as of , [82] Advanced Parking Guidance System automatic parking , a four-speed electronically controlled automatic with buttons for power and economy shifting, and an eight-speed automatic transmission.

Toyota, and Toyota-produced Lexus and Scion automobiles, consistently rank near the top in certain quality and reliability surveys, primarily J. Power and Consumer Reports [83] although they led in automobile recalls for the first time in In , Toyota, combined with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu Motor Company , produced 8.

Toyota has a large market share in the United States, but a small market share in Europe. It also sells vehicles in Africa and is a market leader in Australia. Due to its Daihatsu subsidiary, it has significant market shares in several fast-growing Southeast Asian countries. According to the Fortune Global , Toyota is the fifth largest company in the world.

Since the recession of , it has gained market share in the United States. Toyota's market share struggles in Europe where its Lexus brand has 0.

In the first three months of , Toyota together with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu reported number one sales of 2. Toyota's brand sales had risen 9. The difference in performance was largely attributed to surging demand for fuel-efficient vehicles. Toyota was hit by the global financial crisis of as it was forced in December to forecast its first annual loss in 70 years.

Akio Toyoda became the new president and CEO of the company on June 23, , by replacing Katsuaki Watanabe, who became the new vice chairman by replacing Katsuhiro Nakagawa. Toyota's net revenue by geographical regions for the year ended March 31, In , Toyota initiated the Innovative International Multi-purpose Vehicle project IIMV to optimize global manufacturing and supply systems for pickup trucks and multipurpose vehicles, and to satisfy market demand in more than countries worldwide.

IIMV called for diesel engines to be made in Thailand, gasoline engines in Indonesia, and manual transmissions in India and the Philippines, for supply to the countries charged with vehicle production. Its first vehicle assembly plant, in Cambridge, Ontario , since , now produces Corolla compact cars, Matrix crossover vehicles, and Lexus RX luxury SUVs, with a workforce of 4, workers.

In these assembly plants, the Camry and the Tundra are manufactured, among others. Toyota marketing, sales, and distribution in the US are conducted through a separate subsidiary, Toyota Motor Sales, U.

It has started producing larger trucks, such as the new Tundra, to go after the large truck market in the United States. Currently, Toyota has no plans to offer diesel motor options in its North American products, including the light-duty pickup trucks.

In , Australia was one of the first countries to assemble Toyotas outside Japan. However, in February , Toyota was the last of Australia's major automakers to announce the end of production in Australia. The closure of Toyota's Australian plant will be completed by Before Toyota, Ford and GM's Holden had announced similar moves, all citing an unfavorable currency and attendant high manufacturing costs.

Toyota is the world's market leader in sales of hybrid electric vehicles , one of the largest companies to encourage the mass-market adoption of hybrid vehicles across the globe, and the first to commercially mass-produce and sell such vehicles, with the introduction of the Toyota Prius in Toyota's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle project began in , with road trials of the prototype vehicle in France and the UK in Toyota made Prius plug-in demonstration vehicles for lease to fleet and government customers.

The production version of the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid was released in Japan in January , [] [] followed by the United States in late February, [] and deliveries in Europe began in late June During its first year in the market, a total of 27, Prius PHVs were sold worldwide, [] allowing the plug-in version to rank as the second most sold plug-in electric car for Unlike the first generation model, it is available in all 50 states.

The first generation Toyota RAV4 EV was leased in the United States from to , and at the lessees' request, many units were sold after the vehicle was discontinued. In May , Toyota launched a collaboration with Tesla Motors to create electric vehicles. The lithium metal-oxide battery and other power train components were supplied by Tesla Motors.

Tesla built the electric powertrain at its plant at Tesla Factory in Fremont, California , and then shipped them to Canada. Production was limited to 2, units during a three-year period. The first 30 iQ EVs were delivered in the U. Since , the ZEV-NET program has been serving the transport needs of the Irvine community with all-electric vehicles for the critical last mile of commutes from the Irvine train station to the UC campus and local business offices.

In addition, Toyota announced that is backing away from fully electric vehicles. The company's vice chairman, Takeshi Uchiyamada, said: Toyota's project called Ha: Toyota said the car was planned for launch in about In August , Toyota announced its plans to start retail sales of a hydrogen fuel-cell sedan in California in Toyota expects to become a leader in this technology.

Toyota's first hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles to be sold commercially, the Toyota Mirai Japanese for "future" , was unveiled at the November Los Angeles Auto Show. Initially, the Mirai will only be available in California. In , Toyota released 5, patents for free use until , hoping to promote global development of hydrogen fuel-cell technology. As of , Toyota officially lists approximately 70 different models sold under its namesake brand, including sedans, coupes, vans, trucks, hybrids, and crossovers.

Toyota first entered the pickup truck market in with the SB that was only sold in Japan and limited Asian markets. It was followed in by the RK renamed in as the Stout and in by the compact Hilux.

With continued refinement, the Hilux simply known as the Pickup in some markets became famous for being extremely durable and reliable, and many of these trucks from as early as the late s are still on the road today, some with over , miles. Extended- and crew-cab versions of these small haulers were eventually added, and Toyota continues to produce them today under various names depending on the market.

Riding on the success of the compact pickups in the US, Toyota decided to attempt to enter the traditionally domestic-dominated full-size pickup market, introducing the T for the US model year, with production ending in While having a bed at the traditional full-size length of 8 feet, the suspension and engine characteristics were still similar to that of a compact pickup.

It proved to be as economical and reliable as any typical Toyota pickup, but sales never became what Toyota brass had hoped for. It was criticized as being too small to appeal to the traditional American full-size pickup buyer.

Another popular full-size truck essential, a V8 engine, was never available. Additionally, the truck was at first only available as a regular cab, though Toyota addressed this shortcoming and added the Xtracab version in mid In for the model year, Toyota replaced the T with the larger Tundra.

The Tundra addressed criticisms that the T did not have the look and feel of a legitimate American-style full-size pickup. It also added the V8 engine that the T was criticized for not having. However, the Tundra still came up short in towing capacity as well as still feeling slightly carlike. These concerns were addressed with an even larger redesign. A stronger V6 and a second V8 engine among other things were added to the option list.

The smaller Tacoma which traces its roots back to the original Hilux was also produced at the company's San Antonio facility. Toyota-branded luxury vehicles tend to be Japan-only. In , building on a previous partnership with Yamaha Marine , Toyota created "Toyota Marine" [] , building private ownership motorboats , currently sold only in Japan.

A small network in Japan sells the luxury craft at 54 locations, called the "Toyota Ponam" series, and in , a boat was labeled under the Lexus brand name starting May 26, Toyota has been involved in many global motorsports series. They also represent their Lexus brand in other sports car racing categories.

Toyota also runs a driver development programme known as the Toyota Young Drivers Program, which they made for funding and educating future Japanese motorsports talent.

Toyota enjoyed success in all these motorsports categories. In , Toyota entered Formula One as a constructor and engine supplier; however, despite having experienced drivers and a larger budget than many other teams, they failed to match their success in other categories, with five second-place finishes as their best results.

On November 4, , Toyota announced they were pulling out of the sport due to the global economic situation. Toyota's nationwide driver hunt of drivers for Etios Motor Racing Series ended up with selection of 25 drivers, who will participate in the race in Toyota Racing Development TRD was brought about to help develop true high-performance racing parts for many Toyota vehicles.

TRD has often had much success with their aftermarket tuning parts, as well as designing technology for vehicles used in different types of racing. Toyota supports a variety of philanthropic work in areas such as education, conservation, safety, and disaster relief. The Toyota USA Foundation exists to support education in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Toyota also supports a variety of work in Japan. The Toyota Foundation takes a global perspective providing grants in the three areas of human and natural environments, social welfare, and education and culture.

Toyota established the Toyota Technological Institute in , as Sakichi Toyoda had planned to establish a university as soon as he and Toyota became successful. In , Toyota showcased its trumpet-playing robot. A specific example of Toyota's involvement in robotics for the elderly is the Brain Machine Interface. Designed for use with wheelchairs, it "allows a person to control an electric wheelchair accurately, almost in real-time", with his or her mind. Toyota invests in several small start-up businesses and partnerships in biotechnology , including:.

Toyota developed an oekaki -style sewing machine called the Oekaki Renaissance, which, like others of its type, is designed to allow the user to be able to draw ideas directly onto fabric using the art of free-motion embroidery. Toyota has been a leader in environmentally friendly vehicle technologies, most notably the RAV4 EV produced from to , then to present and the Toyota Prius to present. Toyota implemented its fifth Environmental Action Plan in The plan contains four major themes involving the environment and the corporation's development, design, production, and sales.

The five-year plan is directed at the, "arrival of a revitalized recycling and reduction based society". The assessment includes, " Themes of the program consist of "Global Warming Countermeasures" and "Biodiversity Conservation.

Since October , Toyota's new Japanese-market vehicle models with automatic transmissions are equipped with an Eco Drive Indicator. The system takes into consideration rate of acceleration, engine and transmission efficiency, and speed.

When the vehicle is operated in a fuel-efficient manner, the Eco Drive Indicator on the instrument panel lights up. The money will be used to fund environmental programs at the park.

Japan production numbers to Citations for years are for total production and sales and Japan production and salesU. On January 2, , an unnamed chief engineer of the Camry Hybrid , aged 45 years, died from heart failure in his bed.

On February 9, , Kenichi Uchino, aged 30 years, a quality control manager, collapsed then died at work. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Japanese car manufacturer. For other uses, see Toyota disambiguation. This article needs to be updated.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Toyota's headquarters in Toyota City , Japan. Japan Trustee Services Bank 9. Logo until , now still used as a corporate logo. Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. First generation Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. List of Toyota vehicles. Toyota Tacoma, one of the best selling vehicles in the United States of America. List of Lexus vehicles.

Toyota in motorsports and Toyota Motorsport GmbH. Smith, à Chicago , et Donald W. Douglas , dans son bureau de Clover Field, en Californie. Sans attendre les conseils d'avocats ou de banquiers, Donald W. Douglas et American Airlines se partagèrent le programme d'essais en vol [ 3 ] et, dès avril, la compagnie aérienne entreprenait les essais de mise en ligne.

La différence extérieure la plus notable était la forme du fuselage, offrant un maître-couple circulaire. Les deux projecteurs d'atterrissage, situés à l'avant du fuselage sur le DC-2, étaient reportés dans les panneaux externes de voilure et, à la demande d' American Airlines , dont les procédures de piste avaient été établies pour les Trimoteurs Ford et Curtiss Condor , les portes étaient placées à droite du fuselage. Cette pratique fut par la suite abandonnée, Douglas revenant aux classiques ouvertures à gauche, comme sur le DC Quelle que fût la position de la porte d'accès principale de la cabine, les portes des compartiments à bagages furent toujours positionnées à gauche.

En série, on ne devait plus trouver à gauche que six fenêtres principales, en raison de la présence d'un office à l'arrière et, généralement, trois fenêtres supérieures correspondant aux trois couchettes occupant ce côté. La voilure voyait son envergure augmenter de trois mètres avec une forme plus douce, bien que les plans externes des DC-2 et DC-3 fussent interchangeables, les pièces de liaison étant identiques.

Le bord d'attaque pouvait être équipé de dégivreurs pneumatiques et la partie centrale de l'aile affichait un nouveau profil, NACA , alors qu'on retrouvait aux extrémités le classique NACA Autre différence notable, l'empennage vertical adoptait la forme de celui des Douglas B et C On y ajouta en mars une arête dorsale pour améliorer la stabilité à basse vitesse, qui fut ensuite adoptée par les C , dernière version du DC L'empennage horizontal subissait aussi des modifications.

American Airlines, dont les pilotes avaient pu prendre en main la tête de série dès avril , prit livraison de trois appareils début juin, le DST effectuant son premier vol commercial le 25 juin sur la ligne Chicago - Newark.

Convertis en avions de transport classique ou en cargo, huit volaient toujours au début des années Non seulement la compagnie aérienne appartenait au même groupe que le motoriste, mais encore United Air Lines utilisait avec satisfaction les moteurs Pratt et Whitney depuis de nombreuses années et ne souhaitait pas en changer.

Enfin, United exploitait une route transcontinentale à des altitudes plus élevées que ses concurrentes, TWA et American Air Lines , et le Twin Wasp était plus puissant en altitude: Le Twin Wasp fut finalement le moteur le plus utilisé sur les appareils de la famille DC Pourtant, lorsqu'en janvier United entreprit de négocier l'achat de 10 DC-3, Douglas n'accepta d'étudier l'adaptation de ce moteur qu'à la condition que la compagnie aérienne paie les frais d'études.

Afin de vérifier la compatibilité du Twin Wasp avec la cellule, le second DST destiné à American Airlines fut détourné temporairement, avec l'accord de la compagnie new-yorkaise. Selon les chiffres officiels du constructeur, DC-3A sortirent des chaînes. Le Douglas Sleeper Transport pouvait difficilement échapper à une motorisation par Pratt et Whitney, et ce fut encore United Air Lines qui fut à l'origine de cette version, avec une commande de dix DST-A avec porte à droite qui furent livrés entre les 25 juin et 6 août , la certification ATC A étant obtenue le 30 juin.

Deux de ces appareils furent livrés directement à Western Air Express , avant obtention de la certification et début des livraisons à UAL.

Comme pour le DC-3A, ce fut United , seul client du DST-A, qui effectua les travaux d'adaptation du moteur et, après approbation par Douglas, remotorisa dans ses ateliers de Cheyenne , dans le Wyoming , les cellules livrées par Douglas avant mise en service. Six de ces appareils relativement rares volaient encore au début des années American Airlines ne fut finalement pas la seule à s'intéresser aux avions-couchettes et, le 3 mai , la certification ATC A fut accordée à une version intermédiaire entre le DST et le DC-3, sur une demande spécifique de Transcontinental and Western.

Quelques mois plus tard, ils furent convertis en classiques avions de transport et devinrent pour les besoins de l'Air Force C 5 appareils ou C quatre exemplaires. Six reprirent du service chez TWA entre et , les derniers étant revendus en Dans la lignée des accords passés entre Douglas et l'avionneur hollandais, Fokker plaça en Europe un certain nombre de DC-3, qui furent livrés en pièces détachées à Fokker aux États-Unis après essais en vol complets, transportés par bateau jusqu'aux Pays-Bas et remontés en Europe avant livraison.

Une coopération qui prit fin début , la guerre en Europe modifiant le cours de carrière de la plupart de ces bimoteurs. À l'approche de son entrée dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale , l'armée américaine demanda à Douglas Aircraft Company de lui proposer une version du DC-3 adaptée à ses attentes, en s'inspirant du C , qui répondait déjà parfaitement à ses besoins.

Ce sera le C Skytrain. Mais l' attaque de Pearl Harbor par la Marine Impériale Japonaise accéléra considérablement les choses.

Pour faire face aux besoins les plus urgents, un certain nombre de DC-3 furent achetés auprès des compagnies aériennes, et Douglas Aircraft Company reçut l'ordre de livrer à l' Air Force les appareils en cours de production sans modification majeure afin de gagner du temps, ce qui donna le C Skytrooper.

Le gouvernement américain fit donc construire sur l'aérodrome voisin de Long Beach une usine spécifiquement dédiée à la production du C Et comme cela ne suffisait toujours pas, une troisième usine fut ensuite ouverte à Oklahoma City. En octobre , les États-Unis adoptèrent une pratique récurrente au Royaume-Uni , celle de désigner les appareils militaires par un nom plutôt que par leur type officiel, et ce dans un souci de sécurité.

Le C fut le premier appareil militaire américain à recevoir officiellement un nom de baptême. Il devint le Skytrain , mais ce nom ne fut guère utilisé que dans les communiqués officiels. Produit uniquement à Santa Monica sur les chaînes ayant assuré avant la Seconde Guerre mondiale la production civile, il s'agissait d'un DC-3A adapté aux spécifications militaires sans changement de structure.

En particulier, la porte passagers à gauche était conservée. Douglas Aircraft Company resta totalement étrangère à l'idée de transformer le DC-3 en planeur. On commença donc par vérifier les qualités de planeur du bimoteur par une série d'atterrissages moteurs coupés, puis on réalisa des essais de remorquage en vol pour vérifier le comportement de l'appareil. Tout se passant bien, il fut décidé de transformer un appareil de série en véritable planeur. Le XCG se révéla être un excellent planeur, avec une vitesse de remorquage relativement élevée, pouvant être tracté par un quadrimoteur B ou C et, dans l'esprit des concepteurs du programme, facilement disponible.

On en resta pourtant au stade expérimental, la production en série du CG n'étant jamais envisagée.

The five-year plan is directed at the, "arrival of a revitalized recycling and reduction based society".

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Toyota first entered the pickup truck market in with the SB that was only sold in Japan and limited Asian markets. Its Nagoya office is located in Nakamura-ku , Nagoya.

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